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门禁系统英文专业术语(1)  

2008-03-30 16:05:45|  分类: 一卡通系统 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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A: 

Access Card
A coded employee card, usually the size of a credit card, recognizable to the access control system and read by a reader to allow access. It can be used for photo identification of the cardholder and for other data collection purposes. Card technologies include magnetic strips, wiegand-effect, proximity (active/passive), barium fer-rite, and smart/intelligent cards.

Access Code
Any system or method which automatically controls the passage of people and vehicles into or out of an area or structure.

Access Control
Control the employees from accessing the business premises by locking and unlocking the doors, turnstile or car park barriers. You can define the authorized time for each individual or for a group of individuals and can specify which has the rights to access a particular terminal in a multi-device environment, where multiple doors are controlled by different devices.

Access Group
A list of areas to which a keyholder is allowed access. The access may be restricted to certain times by the use of a Time Profile

Access Level
The door or combination of doors and/or barriers an individual is authorized to pass through.


Access Point
Each means of entry into a controlled security area, consisting of a card reader, monitor switches and/or latches. Access points are wired to an access control panel.

Access Time
The period of time during which an access point is unlocked. (Also see shunt time).


Acquisition device
The hardware used to acquire biometric samples. The following acquisition devices are associated with each biometric technology.

Active imposter acceptance
Acceptance of a biometric sample submitted by someone attempting to gain illegal entry to a biometric system.

ACU (Access Control Unit)
An electronic control panel to which readers and alarm devices are wired. The ACU can be a standalone unit or wired to a CPU.

Administrator
Individual responsible for the security system and assigning operator passwords

AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification System)
A system originally developed for use by law enforcement agencies, which compares a single fingerprint with a database of fingerprint images. Subsequent developments have seen its use in commercial applications, where a client or customer has their finger image compared with existing personal data by placing a finger on a scanner, or by the scanning of inked paper impressions.

Alogrithm
A sequence of instructions that tells a system how to solve a problem. Used by biometric systems, for example, to tell whether a sample and a template are a match. Cryptographic algorithms are used to encrypt sensitive data files, to encrypt and decrypt messages, and to digitally sign documents. "A set of computational rules specifying the procedures to perform a specific computation"

Anti-Tamper
A means of detecting unauthorised disconnection of cables or removal of covers from security equipment.

Anti-Passback or Passback
Status of a card according to its last use. When the card is used at an IN reader, the card will not be able to access another IN reader until it hasused an OUT reader. This feature is optional and used in higher security applications and parking lots.

This feature protects against more than one person using the same card or number. It defines each sys-tem card reader and card I.D. number as IN, OUT, or Other. Once a card is granted access to and IN reader, it must be presented to an OUT reader before another IN reader access is granted. Cards will continue to have access to all authorized OTHER readers.

A feature that prevents a user from giving their code to someone else to use. A user code must be used to enter then used to exit before it can be reused to enter again. This feature requires one port for entry and a second port for exit.

Anti-tearing (or Anti-pulling)
A card feature, which protects the contents of memory if the card is removed before the end of the transaction.

Anti-collision (or collision avoidance)
A feature commonly used in contactless card systems to prevent conflicts between different signals competing for attention at the same time.

API
Application Program Interface. A computer code which is a set of instructions or services used to standardize an application. Any system compatible with the API can then be added or interchanged by the application developer.

Armed
The security system is armed when it is activated by entering your personal security code on the keypad or by a button on a keyfob.  Arming your system activates the detection of unauthorized entry.

Asynchronous Multimodality
Systems that require that a user verify through more than one biometric in sequence. Asynchronous multimodal solutions are comprised of one, two, or three distinct authentication processes. A typical user interaction will consist of a verification on finger scan, then face if finger is successful.

Amplitude-shift keying (ASK).
ASK is rarely used in wireless applications because multipath effects can dramatically influence the amplitude of the information-bearing signal. This causes errors when the signal is received and decoded.

Audit trail
In computer/network systems: Record of events (protocols, written documents, and other evidence) which can be used to trace the activities and usage of a system. Such material is crucial when tracking down successful attacks/attackers, determining how the attacks happened, and being able to use this evidence in a court of law.

Authentication
The process of establishing the validity of the user attempting to gain access to a system. Primary authentication methods are:

Access passwords (something the user knows)
Access tokens (something the user owns)

Biometrics

Geography (a workstation, for example)
Auxiliary Dead Latch
A plunger which, when actuated, automatically locks a projected latch bolt against return by end pressure.

Authentication
The process of verifying the identity and legitimacy of a person, object or system.

Asynchronous
Microprocessor cards (MPCOS, GPK2000, GemXplore, etc.). A card operating in asynchronous mode is capable of automatically adjusting to the transmission frequency. See also Synchronous Cards.

AWG
American Wire Gauge, denotes the size of wire conductors used in a system.

B

Back Light Compensation (B.L.C.)
A feature on newer CCD cameras which electronically compensates for high background lighting to give detail which would normally be silhouetted.

Badge
To use a card key in a reader to gain access to protected areas; a card key itself, especially one with a photo I.D.

Bandwidth
The quantity of data that is able to transit over a network at a given time.

Battery back-up
A means of automatically switching over to stored battery power during a local power failure.

Baud
A unit of transmission speed. Often confused with bits per second (bps).

Batch
A group of users with the same door permission and restrictions.

Baud Rate
Speed at which serial data is being transmitted. 14,400, 9600, 2400 etc.

BioAPI
BioAPI V1.0, developed by the BioAPI consortium, and released in March 2000. Designed to produce a standard biometric API aiding developers and consumers.

Biometrics
A family of products that electronically scans or reads unique traits of the human body for verification or identification purposes. Biometrics can utilize unique patterns of the iris, retina, hand geometry, or fingerprint. 

Biometric Reader
A device that stores enrolled templates of a unique human trait such as a fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, or retina pattern and looks for a match against a live presentation, to grant access to a secure area. Used as an alternate to card readers.

Buffer Capacity
Refers to the amount of information the system can store, this may include the users, time of day and specific door.

Buffer overflow
Most common cause of current security vulnerabilities. A buffer overflow occurs when more data is put into a temporary data storage area (buffer) than the buffer can hold. Because buffers can only hold a finite amount of data, the extra information can overflow into adjacent buffers, corrupting or overwriting the data in them. Programming errors are the one of the most frequent causes of buffer overflow problems. In attacks which exploit buffer vulnerabilities, extra data is sent to the buffer with code designed to trigger specific actions, and which can damage files, change data, or disclose confidential information. Buffer overflow attacks may have arisen from poor use of the C programming language.

C

Card
A plastic Card containing user ID information. Cards come in four different technologies Bar Code, Magnetic Stripe, Proximity and Wiegand. This Card is inserted into, swiped through, or presented to a reader.

Card Holder
The person to whom a personal card was issued (not necessarily the person holding the card).
A person who carries an ID device. Two types of key/card holder exist: i. Personnel - usually a tenant or full time employee. ii. Visitor - a contractor or other person who requires some access around the site, but for a limited number of days only.

Card Reader
A reading device, usually installed beside a controlled door, that can decode user card information and transmit it to the access controller.

Closed System
A system whose use is limited to the original application issuer(s). Common closed systems include campus cards, corporate badges, etc.  See also Open systems

Code
A sequence of digits which are sensed by the System when the user enters a Card or presses numbered Keypad buttons.

Coercivity
The property of a magnetic material, as on a magnetic stripe keys, which is a measure of the coercive force. It is used when describing the strength of magnetic saturation when discussing magnetic stripe card keys.

Combi Card
A card which uses both contact and contactless technology.

Contactless Smart Card
Smart card technology using radio waves rather than contacts to energise and communicate with the chip inside the card.

Contact & Contactless
In regard to chip cards: whether the card is read by direct contact with a reader or has a transmitter/receiver system which allows it to be read using radio frequency technology (up to a certain distance).

Controlled Door
A door equipped with at least one card reader (or one PIN keypad), a door locking device, a door contact, a request to exit sensor and a door closer. In most installations, the access control system provides for automatic lock and unlock of doors used for entry and, perhaps, exit of the premises. The controlled doors may be secured all the time or only according to selected schedules. To do this, door locking devices that are electrically operated and linked to the access controller must be provided.

Crossover error rate (CER)
a comparison metric for different biometric devices and technologies; the error rate at which FAR equals FRR. The lower the CER, the more accurate and reliable the biometric device.

Cylinder
The cylindrical subassembly of a lock containing a cylinder plug with keyway and a cylinder body with tumbler mechanism.

D

Data vaulting
The process of sending data off site, where it can be protected from hardware failures, theft, and other threats. Several companies now offer Web backup services that compress, encrypt, and periodically transmit a customer's data to a remote vault. In most cases, the vaults have auxiliary power supplies, powerful computers, and manned security. Also referred to as a remote backup service (RBS).

Dead Bolt
A lock component having an end which protrudes form or is withdrawn into, the lock front by action of the lock mechanism. When the door is closed and the dead bolt thrown, it extends into a hold provided in the strike, locking the door and will not retract with end pressure.

Default
Preset values in the software which the System will use if the user does not change them.

Device Address
Value set on an access control device to determine its unique identity

Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
Digital signal processing (DSP) refers to various techniques for improving the accuracy and reliability of digital communications. DSP works by clarifying, or standardizing, the levels or states of a digital signal. A DSP circuit is able to differentiate between human-made signals, which are orderly, and noise which is inherently chaotic. In security, DSP is deployed in signaling devices such as motion detectors to minimize false alarms, and surveillance cameras to improve image quality. 

Digital Video Recorder (DVR)
Digital Video Recorder is the industry standard term applied to standalone and PC-based systems that record video images to a computer hard drive providing high quality recording. DVR’s provide a quicker method of retrieving the recorded information unlike media such as VHS tapes and other equipment that stores information in a sequential manner. 

Digital certificate
In the PKI environment, the data, equivalent to an identity card, issued to a user by a CA (Certificate authority), which he/she uses during business transactions to prove his/her identity.

Digital signature
The number derived by performing cryptographic operations on the text to be signed. This operation, or hash function (also called hash algorithm), is performed on the binary code of the text. The result is known as the message digest, and always has a fixed length. A signature algorithm is applied to the message digest, resulting in the digital signature.

Disabled
Turned off. Not active.

Disarm
The act of disabling or shunting a security system or portions of the system to ignore input signals that normally result in alarms. Disarming can occur with user intervention, such as pass codes entered into a keypad, or on schedule through a PC based Access Control System. 

Door Ajar
A condition that occurs when a door is left open after a valid user has passed through.

Door Contact
Contact switch activated whenever a door is opened. This switch monitors the door status (open or closed).

Door Control Relay
The relay used to control the unlocking and locking functions of door hardware in an access control system. 

Door Controller
A microprocessor based unit from which a number of doors may be controlled. The door controller makes the decision as to whether access is to be allowed.

Door Forced
A door forced alarm is the resulting logical alarm that occurs at a portal when the door is sensed to be in an open state without an associated valid access card transaction or an associated REX signal.

Door Open Time
The time allowed for a controlled door to remain open after a valid entry. At the expiration of this time, the system records a transaction which may be defined as an alarm. If the alarm bypass relay is used, it would also de-energize at the end of this time.

DSA
Digital Signature Algorithm. Presented in 1991 by the NIST and patented in 1993. A publicly available one-way algorithm used to generate or verify digital signatures of a text to be signed (not to encrypt/decrypt information). As input, DSA needs

1. The message digest of the message to be signed
2. The signer's private key
3. A random number

Its output is a pair of numbers (often referred to as r and s) which together, make up the digital signature.To verify a digital signature, DSA needs as input

1. The message digest of the text to be verified
2. The signer's public key
3. The value s from the signature

DSA then makes a computation, the output of which is called v, for example. If v = r, then the signature verifies.

DSS
Digital Signature Standard. Developed by FIPS (U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard). Adopted the DSA in the early 1990s.

Dual Control (2-men control)
Dual control is a security procedure that requires two or more people (or two or more devices) to cooperate in order to gain access to a restricted area.

Dual Technology
Utilization of two different technologies in one device to increase reliability and functionality. Dual technology motion sensors, for example, use both passive infrared and microwave technology in order to reduce false alarms and increase detection. 

Duress
A device, such as a push button or pull station, connected to a security system to signal an alarm when an individual is threatened or forced to do something. Bank Clerks typically have a duress alarm installed beneath their counter to signal robbery attempts.
Type of alarm activated by entering a special security code that indicates to the monitoring station that you have been "forced" to disarm your system.

编辑整理:张新房

来源:http://www.exim21.com/security/glossary.htm

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